W6 is identified by the 4093 and 8614 coding region mutations, and the HVR1 16192 and 16325 mutations. W6, together with W3, W4, and W5, were descendants of a woman with a 194 mutation born in northwest India around 14,000 years ago. W6 appeared in the area between the Black and Caspian Seas, perhpas in what is now Georgia, around 10,000 years ago. The modern distribution of modern results, unique among W subgroups, seems to indicate a migration into Anatolia, then into Europe. This would correspond to the spread of agriculture by the first Neolithic farmers, also beginning 10,000 years ago. There is another thread, along the trade routes of Russia and Asia, and then down into India. This could represent very early population movements in the immediate post-glacial period; or the later trade in slaves along the same routes.
The designated W6 subgroups are:
- W6a, with the 8610 coding region mutation, which emerged in the Russian steppes 3,000 years ago. One lineage evidently spread with the Slavic peoples into Central Europe. The subgroup is ineages are found in Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Switzerland. W6a's in HVR1/2 results are also found in Syria and Saudi Arabia. One wonders if they are the descendents of Circassians or Russian slaves traded into the Middle East during the Ottomon centuries...
- W6b, with 4646, 6297, and 8605 mutations in the coding region. This emerged in the Near East 8,000 years ago. Current descendents are found in Dubai, among Palestinians, in Iran, and Turkey. Others are found in Germany and Great Britain, perhaps entering Europe via the Danube Valley with the first Neolithic agriculturalists.
- W6c, defined by the 8658 and 8002 coding region mutations; W6c1, defined by the further 8140 coding region mutation; and W6c1a defined by further 16192 and 16211 HVR mutations (the W6-defining 16192 has 'flipped' back to its CRS value and is not reported in the HVR1 result). The ancestral W6c1 without the 16192 'flip' is found in Georgia. The descendent W6c1a with the 16192 flip is found in Turkey, Iran, and Armenia. W6c probably originated in the Georgian W6 homeland and did not disperse more widely.
- W6d, defined by the 9211 mutation. This emerged around 2000 years ago, and is found today in Israel and Italy.
How to Read These Phylogenetic Trees
There are no less than 14 undesignated lineages in the full coding region results and another 10 or so detectable in the HVR1/2 results. These follow the pattern of a dispersal from Georgia into Anatolia, and then into the Middle East, and along the Black Sea and up the Danube into Europe. THis is a clear signal of the first agriculturalists.
W6 reaches its highest concentration in modern-day Georgia (5.2% of the population).
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