W3, together with W4, W5, and W6 were descendants of a woman with a 194 mutation born in northwest India around 15,000 years ago. W3 is identified by the further coding region 1406 mutation, and emerged around 14,000 years ago. W3's seem to have diversified into subgroups among the nomadic cultures of the Asian steppes south of the Aral Sea after the last glacial maximum. From there they spread via Russia into eastern Europe, perhaps with the peoples that brought the horse to Europe. There are two great divisions of W3: W3a, which appeared 12,000 years ago, and W3b, which appeared 9,000 years ago. Some branches in both divisions also migrated into India. Each lineage followed its distinctive route and timing.
The major families and their time of emergence are:
- W3a, defined by the 15784 coding region mutation. This emerged in the steppes or northwest India around 12,000 years ago and led to the following subgroups:
- W3a1, defined by the 13263 coding region mutation, emerging in the stepes 11,000 years ago. The 13263 mutation also occurs in Haplogroup C. Therefore testing done to place results in a haplogroup, even if only HVR1 and/or HVR2 are tested completely, allows individuals to be identified by as W3a1 without a full genome test.
- W3a1a, defined by the 07151 mutation. W3a1a originated south of the Aral Sea around 10,000 years ago. It expanded via Russia into the Ukraine, Poland, Belarus, the Baltic states, and Finland.
- W3a1a1, which emerged in the Ukraine around 9,000 years ago. One distinct branch, with the 16291 mutation, appeared around 1500 years ago and is today found only among Ashkenazi descendants.
- W3a1b with the 10245 mutation. This emerged 10,000 years ago, south of the Aral Sea or in northwest India. It migrated into eastern India and Sri Lanka.
- W3a1c with the 199 HVR2 change and 7269 mutation. This emerged 4,000 years ago. There are no results yet with definite Old World origins, although some branches are probably from the British Isles.
- W3a2 with the distinctive 16209 and 16255 HVR1 mutations emerged between the Caspian and Aral Seas around 6,000 years ago. One branch is found today in Turkmenistan. The lineage migrated north of the Caspian and Black Seas. One branch moved into the Ukraine and later into the Tatras Mountains of Poland / Slovakia as part of the Lemo ethnic group. Another branch moved south into Romania, and then probably along the Danube, eventually reaching the area of Rouen, France. From here what seems to be a single emigrant ancestor, Marie Marguerie, arrived in Quebec in 1641, ancestoring hundreds of thousands of descendants in the United States and Canada.
- W3a+152, with the 152 HVR2 mutation. This emerged 6,000 years ago and is found today in Western Europe (Ireland through Germany to Slovenia).
- W3a+143, with the 143 HVR2 mutation. This emerged 9,000 years ago south of the Aral Sea. One branch with the 14693 coding region mutation diversified 3,000 years ago and is found today in India and Sri Lanka. Another branch, with the 8521-9198-11935 mutations, diversified 5,000 years ago and is probably found today in Europe.
- W3a+16234, with the 16234 HVR1 mutation. This emerged 2,000 years ago and is found today in Europe (Germany).
How to Read These Phylogenetic Trees
- W3b, which emerged with the 12923 coding region mutation and 199 HVR2 mutation 8,500 years ago. Descendant lineages are found today in Turkey, Lithuania (W3b1), Britain, Hungary, Bulgaria, and India:
- W3b1, with the 7058 coding region mutation, and in one branch, the loss of the 189 mutation in HVR2, is found in the Ukraine, Lithuania, and Poland. It diversified around 1600 years ago.
- W3b+16066+16207: This British lineage has the distinctive 16066 and 16207 mutations in HVR1 and 293 in HVR2. It diversified in Britain around 1700 years ago.
- W3b+16129+16192: This Hungarian lineage, with the 16129 and 16192 mutations in HVR1, is found only in Hungary.
- W3b+16172+16231: This lineage with the 16172 and 16231 HVR1 mutations is found in Turkey and the Balkans (Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia), with a descendant type in Italy.
- W3b+1413: A single example of this Turkish lineage has eight coding region mutations.
- W3b+1719: A single example of this Indian lineage has four coding region mutations.
How to Read These Phylogenetic Trees
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