W1 is defined by the 07864 coding region mutation; a third of W's are of this subgroup, making it the largest. If HVR2 results are available, W1 may be tentatively identified by not having the 00194 mutation, which differentiates it from all other W subgroups.
W1 emerged about 15,000 years ago in central Asia. There are eight recognized major subgroups, W1a through W1h, plus more than seven others not yet given an official designation.
How to Read These Phylogenetic Trees
W1 consists of the following major subgroups:
- W1a (currently defined by coding region mutations 05495 12669). These mutations actually identify a Finnish subgroup that diversified less than 3,000 years ago, coincident with the expansion of Finns into their current territory. However recent results have shown a more complex picture. First, it is found that there was a lineage of W1a's that migrated from Finland via Sweden to Britain. Second, a new ancestral branch has been discovered, with just the 5495 mutation, which is much older - around 14,000 years old. This has currently been identified in Austria, Belgium, and Ireland. The distribution indicates it probably developed in the Eurasian steppes and migrated into Europe with the first pastoralists.
- W1b (defined by coding region mutations 04928 and 09612, and HVR2 mutation 00227). This so far remains a purely Finnish group. Prior to the migration of the Finns from their Siberian homeland to their modern territory, about 4500 years ago, a 10086 mutation split W1b into two lineages. After 3,000 years ago, both expanded into numerous subbranches.
- W1c (defined by coding region mutations 14148). This is the oldest W1 subgroup, emerging around 11,000 years ago in the steppes of Kazakhstan. Descendent lineages are found today in Georgia, Turkey, India, and Europe. The Indian lineages (W1c-16292 and W1c+150) both emerged around 7,000 years ago. There are two European lineages - W1c1, which emerged 5,000 years ago, and is found today in Germany and Britain; and W1c+5004, found today in England and Ireland, which emerged 4000 year ago.
- W1d is defined by coding region mutation 08383, 09278, and 14981. There is only one full genome result so far, that an Israeli Jew of Iraqi origin. The person has numerous additional changes, including loss of 16292 in HVR1, 16260 and 16298 in HVR1, and 00189, 00194, 00200 in HVR2. There are similar HVR / HVR2 results from Iran, Iraq, and Cyprus. The type seems therefore to have emerged in the earliest agricultural societies, and spread into the eastern Mediterranean, the Levant, Iraq, and Iran. The relationship between the Iranian Indo-European results and the Iraqi Jewish results may suggest an origin of this lineage in the Persian exile as described in the Book of Esther.
- W1e is defined by the 08659 and 08887 coding region mutations, and the 16295 mutation in HVR1. The ancestral type with only the 16295 mutation is today exclusively Finnish, with a diversification around 2,000 years ago. As in the case of W1a and W1b, another branch of W1e, with an additional 16324 mutation, migrated via maritime routes through Scandinavia to Britain, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal.
There are further HVR1 results, not certainly W1e, with both the 16295 and 16324 mutation. These have an interesting distribution in Europe and diverged around 1500 years ago. The geographic distribution (and the associated dates) correlate with the migrations of the Huns under Attilla. 16295+16324 is also found among the Sekely in Romania, who believe themselves descendants of the Huns. Some traditions say the Huns originated in northern Eurasia, the same area as the Finno-Ugarits. So one theory could be that the original 16295-only mutation arose around 4000 years ago among the peoples in northern Eurasia who would later split into the Finns, Estonians, Magyars, and Huns; but only the 16324 mutation emerged among the Estonians and Huns; and the Huns brought it into central Europe, while the Estonians into maritime western Europe via Scandinavia. Alternatively, these central European 16295+16234's could be another haplogroup. Only full genome or 500k SNP results for some of these central European types will resolve the question.
- W1f, defined by the 09950 mutation in the coding region. This emerged 7,000 years ago, presumably among the first European Neolithic agriculturalists in the Danube valley. So far only three coding region results have been reported; one branch in Austria has a 16275 mutation in HVR1; the other branch, in the Czech Republic, has a 16249 mutation. No HVR1-only or HVR1+HVR2 results have been reported that might provide more information
- W1g, defined by the 16320 mutation in HVR1. This extends from the Ukraine through Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Germany, and France to Portugal. This arose 4,000 years ago and the timing and the distribution suggest the lineage arose in the upper Danube Valley among the first agriculturalists in Europe.
- W1h, defined by the 16145 mutation in HVR1. One branch of this tree is found among the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe. The line may indicate an ancestor for this entire lineage in the Middle East, since the other branches are found in Italy and Saudi Arabia. Interestingly it is also found among Polish Roma, and ancestral to the Ashkenazi...
- There are numerous other W1 lineages without enough results yet to receive a subgroup designation. As is the case with the non-Finnish, W1a's, W1b's, and W1e's, these all seem to be north European maritime lineages, perhaps descended from a basic W1 lineage in Lithuania 4000 years ago. One branch sharing the 119 mutation in HVR2 spread to territories on the Baltic and North Atlantic.
Comments? Corrections? Questions? E-mail me!