The Descendants of Marie Marguerie
Marie Marguerie was the founder of the 'French W' haplotype lineage in America. Her descendants, through mitochondrial DNA testing after 2000, began to identify their common ancestor and link up their genealogies.
|Rouen at the time of Marie's childhood|
Marie was born in Rouen, France, and emigrated America in 1641. Her family members lived hard and but colorful frontier lives in New France. They survived Indian raids, fought wars with other Europeans, and faced at times near extinction of their colony. Follow the links to read the full story of Marguerie's life, that of her brother, Francois Marguerie, husbands Jacques Hertel and Quentin Moral, her son Francois Hertel, and her daughters Marguerite and Madeleine Hertel, and Marie-Jeanne, Therese, Gertrude, and Marthe Moral.
Marie's mitochondrial DNA was of the W haplogroup. The first woman of the W haplogroup - dubbed Wilma - was born between 49,000 and 26,800 years ago in what is now northwest India or northern Pakistan. By between 40,700 and 23,300 years ago Wilma's descendants were distributed in a band across southwest Asia, from Anatolia to northern India With the onset of the last glacial maximum, the area became extremely arid and the mountains blocked by glaciers. There are indications that the peoples including Wilma's descendants were broken into two groups, separated by the arid desert that stretched from the Indian Ocean up to the glacier-bound Asian mountains. These tribes managed to survive in these two areas of 'glacial refuge'.
After the glaciers receded and the deserts retreated 14,000 years ago, the way was clear for the expansion of modern humans from their ice age prisons. Wilma's descendants entered Europe through the Balkans, spreading in several directions. During this journey one W haplotype woman had a distinctive mutation at letter 119 in the HVR2 of her mitochondrial DNA. This woman's descendants finally settle in what is now France, and one of them was Marie Marguerie's female ancestor.
The differences in Marie Marguerie's mtDNA code in the Highly Variable Regions 1 and 2, in comparison to what is known as the Cambridge Reference Sequence, were:
HVR1: 16209C 16223T 16255A 16292T 16519C
HVR2: 73G 119C 189G 195C 204C 207A 263G 309.1C 315.1C
An additional change occurred at 309.2C on one branch of the family sometime between 1710 and the present.
Here are all of the female ancestors and descendants of Marie Marguerie identified to date known to have her mtdna haplotype (in order of known or approximate birth year):
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Some images on these pages are from the film Black Robe, a portrayal of the difficult life of the Jesuit missionaries and first settlers of New France.
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